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1 The term “African, Caribbean and Black (ACB)” is often used in Ontario to accommodate a range of Black identities. In this report  we use “ACB” and “Black” interchangeably. “Black” has the benefit  of simplicity and avoids referring to people by an acronym.

2 Epidemiological data are from: (a) Remis, R., Swantee, C., Liu, J. (2012). Report on HIV/AIDS in Ontario 2009. Ontario HIV Epidemiologic Monitoring Unit; and (b) Remis, R., Swantee C., Schiedel, L., Fikre, M. and Liu, J. (2006). Report on HIV/AIDS in Ontario 2004. Ontario HIV Epidemiologic Monitoring Unit.

3 The high proportion of diagnoses among women may also reflect testing associated with pregnancy.

4 HIV Endemic Task Force (2003). Strategy to Address Issues Related to HIV Faced by People in Ontario from Countries Where HIV is Endemic. Toronto: African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario (www.accho.ca/pdf/ACCHO_strategy_ENGLISH_Dec2003.pdf).

5 Leonard, L. (2013). What HIV-positive African, Caribbean and Black women have to say about HIV prevention. Presented at the Annual KTE Forum: African, Caribbean and Black Women Living with HIV. Toronto. March 16.

6 Since then, several other Black men have been charged with various non-disclosure  offences related to sex with female partners. See: (a) Mykhalovskiy, E., Betteridge, G. (2010). Who? What? Where? When? And with what consequences? An analysis of criminal cases of HIV non-disclosure in Canada. Canadian Journal of Law and Society 27(1), 31-53; and (b) Larcher, A., Symington, A. (2010). Criminals and Victims? The Impact of the Criminalization of HIV Non-Disclosure on African, Caribbean and Black Communities in Ontario. African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario.

7 see Miller, J. (2005). African immigrant damnation syndrome: The case of Charles Ssenyonga. Sexuality Research & Social Policy 2(2), 31-50.

8 Wai, Z. (2012). Epistemologies of African Conflicts:  Violence, Evolutionism, and  the  War in Sierra Leone. London: Palgrave Macmillan

9 hooks, b. (2004). We Real Cool: Black Men and Masculinity. New York: Routledge, pp. 47-68.

10 ibid.

11 Bowleg, L., Teti, M., Massie, J. S., Patel, A., Malebranche, D. J., Tschann, J. M. (2011). ‘What does it take to be a man? What is a real man?’: ideologies of masculinity and HIV sexual risk among Black heterosexual men. Culture, Health & Sexuality 13(5), 545-559.

12 Mahalik, J. R., Burns, S. M., Syzdek, M. (2007). Masculinity and perceived normative health behaviors as predictors of men’s health behaviors. Social Science and Medicine 64(11), 2201-2209.

13 see Frosh, S., Phoenix, A., Pattman, R. (2003). Taking a stand: using psychoanalysis to explore the positioning of subjects in discourse. British Journal of Social Psychology 42(1), 39-53.

14 Scripts work in tandem with categories, discourses and systems of representations to provide dominant cultural frames of reference. We use the term script here interchangeably with the conceptual terms “category” and  “discourse”.

15 see Husbands, W., Makoroka, L., Walcott, R., Adam, B., George, C., Remis, R., Rourke, S. (2013). Black gay men as sexual subjects: race, racialization and the social relations of sex among Black gay men in Toronto. Culture, Health & Sexuality 15(4), 434-449.

16 The argument here is that men’s ability to cope with vulnerability in their environment will vary depending on the individual and the nature of his social circumstance. Men don’t all cope with vulnerability in the same stereotypical way.

17 Williams, R. (2009). Masculinities and vulnerability: the solitary discourses and practices of African- Caribbean and White working-class fathers. Men and Masculinities 11(4), 441-461.

18 These peculiar health-related problems include gun violence and other issues related to crime and the criminal justice system.

19 That is, except the type of issues understood as peculiar health-related problems (see note above).

20 The other studies are: (a) Lawson, E., Gardezi, F., Calzavara, L., Husbands, W., Myers, T., Tharao, W., and the Stigma Study Team (2006). HIV/AIDS Stigma, Denial, Fear and Discrimination: Experiences and Responses of People from African and Caribbean Communities in Toronto. ACCHO and the HIV Social, Behavioural and Epidemiologic Studies Unit, University of Toronto; (b) Husbands, W., Makoroka, L., George, C., Adam, B., Remis, R., Rourke, S., Beyene, J. (2010). MaBwana: Health, Community and  Vulnerability to  HIV among African,  Caribbean  and  Black  Gay and  Bisexual  Men in Toronto. ACCHO and ACT; and (c) Shimeles. H., Husbands, W., George, C., Fenta, H., Afzal, A., Baidoobonso, S., Mbulaheni, T. (2013). Staying  Alive: Evaluation of the “Keep it Alive!” HIV Awareness and Prevention Campaign for African, Caribbean and Black Communities in Ontario. ACCHO.

21 see Campbell, C. (2003). ‘Letting Them  Die’: Why  HIV/AIDS Programs Fail. Oxford: International African Institute and James Currey (pp. 35-60).